Before tackling conflicts in africa one should first consider conflict in general. In postcolonial africa, these conflicts are greatly exacerbated by the neocolonial arrangements that characterise many african governments. Ethnicity as a weapon of destruction in africa by sampson boamah we have no one to develop our beautiful continent for us and there is no place like home. Loyalty to ethnic groups impedes true nationalism and unity of the country. Conflict sources many factors cause conflict in subsaharan africa, some direct, others indirect.
This security brief challenges that notion arguing that a rediagnosis of the underlying drivers to ethnic violence can lead to more effective and sustainable responses. We estimate the determinants of land conflicts and their impacts on input application in kenya by using a recent survey of 899 rural. Most countries especially in africa have experienced a form of conflict that has. An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups. This inference seems selfevident to many, given that african rebel movements almost always are ethnically. The purpose of this paper is to identify the historic and political causes for the rwandan genocide through an ethnic lens in order to determine whether ethnic division was really the cause for the atrocities or was rather just a dimension of. It has been experienced with a number of armed conflicts, ethnolinguistic disputes, religious radicalism where in it catches the attention of most developed nations including us for their strategic interest over the region.
Conflicts and causes of conflicts in africa project topics. Current conflicts in africa 2020 and examples information. Especially in africa, religion has been at the heart of much of the contemporary conflicts. Ethnic conflict remains the biggest cause of deaths especially in the continent of africa.
A world bank report notes that politics and poverty cause civil wars, not ethnic diversity. From the colonial times till date, leaders use ethnic biases to win election and divide the country. They arise from anomalous economic, political and social structures prevalent in many african societies. Conflicts and causes of conflicts in africa project. Project muse the roots of ethnic conflict in africa. Ali mazrui quotes nigeria as an example of the tendency. The conflict is usually not about ethnic differences themselves but over. One cause of increased violence contributing to the number of refugees is the availability of sophisticated arms, which take many more lives in tribal conflicts.
Peace in africa is not the absence of war, but the provision of the peoples basic human needs. A study by a german academic says religious conflicts in subsaharan africa have been on the rise for decades. Ethnic conflicts in africa are often portrayed as having agesold origins with little prospects for resolution. While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic groups position within society. It can also be said to be an incompatibility, as of two things that cannot be simultaneously fulfilled.
Libyan civil war 2014date this is the second civil war in libya and it is an ongoing conflict among rival factions who are seeking to take control of the territory and crude oil of libya. Uncertainty, each ethnic conflict has its own unique characteristics and, in different contexts, some of these elements will be more prominent than the others, but all of them are the common denominators necessary for ethnic conflict to occur. Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries. Sigmund freud and other psychologist hold the view that the innate instinct for aggression in man is the main cause of conflict. Religious conflicts on the rise in africa africa dw. Opposing tribal or ethnic groups are mainly found within national boundaries although the inherent problems of artificial borders caused by colonialism have resulted in some ethnic groups being found in two, three or even more african countries. Accordingly, this paper attempted to identify and critically analyze the due. Particularly for liberia, this was prominent as 49 per cent of the population reportedly identified ethnicity and ethnic divisions as the root cause of the liberian civil wars vinck et al 2011. This is a list of conflicts in africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between african nations, civil wars, and wars involving nonafrican nations that took place within africa. Ebook the logic of ethnic and religious conflict in africa. Understanding the causes of conflicts in africa africa has a high prevalence of civil wars and this is commonly attributed to the ethnic diversity of its countries. In this video, crisis groups central africa project director thierry vircoulon explains how the intercommunal tensions between armed groups in car, which straddles the mainly muslim sahel and the predominantly christian central african savannah, is now compounded by an emerging conflict between armed communities. The causes of ethnic conflict in multiethnic societies.
The root causes of conflicts in the horn of africa. Amiclar cabrals dictum posits that there are no real conflicts between the peoples of africa. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national. Researcher matthias basedau says weak african states are a major cause. The logic of ethnic and religious conflict in africa epub books jan 23, 2020 ebook by. Religious conflicts also contribute to the swelling numbers of refugees in africa. The horn of africa hoa has been mentioned as one of the most disputed regions of the globe. As means of conflict resolution and exercising of democracy, the government architected the ethnic federalism system in which the country was divided into 9 administrative constituents and 2 self. Causes of conflicts in africa conflicts in africa may be said to have been caused by a multiplicity of factors such as. Ethnicity and refugees in africa cultural survival.
It has been experienced with a number of armed conflicts, ethnolinguistic disputes, religious radicalism where in it catches the attention of most developed nations including us. Religion is often depicted as a trigger factor in many conflicts. Causes of ethnic conflict in africa have resulted in several separatist movements and military coups. The causes of ethnic conflict in multi ethnic societies1 hossien mohammadzadeh assistant professor of sociology, department of social science, payame noor university, tehran, iran email address. From grievance to violence, an edited volume, which has three illustrations, nine chapters, a rich bibliography, and an index. It adds that where there is ethnic diversity, there is actually less chance for civil wars, as long as there is not just a small number of very large ethnic groups, or ethnic. The impact of ethnic conflict on economic development.
According to charles darwin, the biological principles of struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest are the main cause of conflict. Conflict can be defined as a clash or disagreement often violent between opposing groups or individuals. Ethnic collective action, according to mozaffar, is predominantly a process of strategic political interaction between selfinterested actors with divergent interests. Africa security brief misinterpreting ethnic conflicts in africa by clement mweyang aapengnuo a publication of the africa center for strategic studies ethnicity is typically not the driving force of african conflicts but a lever used by political leaders to mobilize supporters in.
Datasets on intra state conflicts uppsala conflict data program correlates of war project national, ethnic and communal conflicts penn university the failed state index global peace index global conflict trends systemic peace minorities at risk journal of peace research. This final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle. The significance of ethnic conflict management in africa is underlined by the continents underdevelopment and weak economic growth. Conflicts arising from the construction of ethnicity to conceal exploitation by building solidarity across class lines, conflicts arising from appeal to ethnic support in the face of vanishing political legitimacy and from.
Tribalism is one of the causes of ethnic conflict in nigeria. Ethnic conflict, a form of conflict in which the objectives of at least one party are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its antecedents, and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines. It also points out that in africa, failed institutions are also a cause. Ethnicity as a weapon of destruction in africa by sampson. Research conducted across the subregion identifies ethnicity and ethnic fragmentation as one of the root causes of violent conflicts in west africa.
Africa, conflict, car, nigeria, somalia, south sudan, sudan, boko haram, alshabaab introduction violent conflict escalated in africa in 2014, with five countries in subsaharan africa the. Main causes and consequences the angolas civil war was an armed conflict that continued in the african nation for more than 26 years from 1975 to 2002, with brief periods of. A literature search indicates the following to be prominent direct or indirect causes. Misinterpreting ethnic conflicts in africa africa center. In the african state, there is a pull towards privatisation of the state and towards militarisation. These conflicts are very recurrent although with less gravity in terms of the numbers of casualties, refugees and displaced persons, and. Clientelism, tribalism, and ethnic conflict in africa free.
This points to the need for a change in the continents approach to conflict management. The root causes of ethnic conflict in africa are poorly understood. Nasongos preface sets the stage for the roots of ethnic conflict in africa. Most of the available sources address ethnic conflict in africa from the point of view of either ethnic diversity or climate change and competition for natural resources to the exclusion of mass grievances to the state. This article argues that ethnic conflicts in africa often have structural sources. Religion is a controversial issue in world affairs.874 220 1290 500 871 335 927 1196 886 5 496 1163 1012 973 826 1485 1567 479 39 486 76 1569 982 1022 1082 850 1354 798 491 440 225 1488 996 811 165 138 314 416 101 1114 993 577 792 1453 638 802